Each person or family who signs up for a health insurance plan is issued a health insurance card that they must present to their doctor or hospital when care is being received. If you've recently changed health insurance companies, or haven't used your health insurance card much in the past, you may have difficulty understanding your health insurance card 3. Get answers to questions that are frequently asked by UnitedHealthcare members. So check and find yours. Medicare cards provide proof of Medicare insurance. Call your provider and ask about your co-payments and coverage amounts if they're not on your health insurance card 3. Please note: What dual-eligible plans you can get depends on where you live. If you are considering changing health insurance companies, or are looking for your first policy, you may want to consider the products … IRS Form 1095-B © United HealthCare Services, Inc. United HealthCare Services, Inc. 1-877-844-4999 / TTY 711 for technical issues all day, every day. Check your health insurance ID card: Your policy number is the same as member id or subscriber id number. Take out your health insurance card, and find your name 3. Already a Plan Member? It is important to note that your card may look differently for United Healthcare because it is an older or newer version 1. 5. The acronym BIN was established in the banking industry and carried over to the health insurance industry when cards were first issued. It defines what is covered and how it is covered. Also will be the phone number for the corresponding sections above and the website for further information. co Issuer 911-39026-02 Member ID: 12345678 JANE SMITH 00 MED DEN SMITH MED DEN JORDYN 02 MED DEN MARK SMITH 03 MED DEN OFFICE Group Numb. Select the Places icon, click the Hospitals icon, enter your ZIP code and set the proximity for the search. UCare Minnesota healthcare plans have an identification card that indicates your insurance benefits or member discounts to participating providers. Kaiser Family Foundation. These fraudsters are after more than just credit card or bank information. 5. 5. This is not a bill. Read your membership materials carefully: You may need them when you see a doctor or if you call your insurance company with questions. United Healthcare: A Quick Look at Your Health Plan ID Card, United Healthcare Community Plan: Member Handbook. See health coverage choices, ways to save today, how law affects you. Oxford Member ID Card Transition Questions and answers Why are the Oxford member identification (ID) cards changing? It is the Rx Bin and Rx Group numbers. Carefully review these, and look through your plan’s provider directory to see where you can get care. This card can be confusing until you learn how to read it. April 25, 2019. May 2019. This guide is designed to help you understand your appeal rights under current law, determine … UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company ("Company") agrees with the … This card must be presented each time services are requested. This number is important for accurate claims processing. Initially, UnitedHealth’s UnitedHealthcare and Walgreens say they will open 14 “UnitedHealthcare Medicare services centers” effective in January … Make sure to have a valid card at all times by renewing it before the required deadline. For 5 years my son has always had his middle name on his insurance card. How to read your health insurance card. If there's a symbol or part of your policy you don't understand, a customer service representative can answer any questions you have. A unique number that categorizes our entire member population. Families USA. Consult your merchant processor or financial institution for the specific fees. Name of the insured. On the back of the card, you will see the magnetic strip. Using your Health Insurance Card With your Health Insurance Card, you benefit from a range of services covered under the Québec Health Insurance Plan. Doctors, dentists, chiropractors, pharmacists and other participating providers will ask to see your UCare ID card before processing insurance claims or offering health insurance-based discounts. This guide has important information on topics such as claims and prior authorizations. Resources should be listed on 4. Plans are insured through UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company or one of its affiliated companies. Although these are often noted on the insurance card, health insurance companies do not always list dental and vision plans on your insurance card, and you could be missing out on benefits 3. The health insurance provider attaches any medical expenditures to that policy through the number. Located on the front of the card is the United Healthcare brand name (except on the HP, Medica and Sierra products) to ensure you are reading the correct card. If you owe money, you will receive a separate bill from your health care provider. The Claims Payer for the Compass Rose Health Plan. Read the information you received from your health insurance provider carefully. It also has protocol information for health care providers. Enrollment in these plans depends on the plan’s contract renewal with Medicare. A few quick notes: How to read your health insurance card Not all cards are created the same, this will serve as a guide but your card may have slight variations. 3. The Policy may require that the Subscriber contribute to the required Premiums. What Is a Health Insurance Policy Number? Insurance cards may be small and difficult to see so that the best plan of action is usually to take a photo of their other motorist’s insurance card with your smartphone. Call your provider and ask about your co-payments and coverage amounts if they're not on your health insurance card 3. The below guide shows you what each piece of information refers to and where you might find it on your insurance card: Plan Name: The plan name is the name of the health plan offered by the insurance company. What Is a Health Insurance Policy Number? Federal Poverty Guidelines for Determining Eligibility for Medicaid, CHIP, and Subsidies in the Exchanges. On the back of the card, you will see the magnetic strip. Below the subscriber’s name is a list of the dependents the subscriber is covering under the health plan. And if the accident / insurance event occurs, the insurance company will bear all or all of the costs in full or in part. After creating your account, you can print the ID card … Car insurance policies will have an insuring agreement for each coverage type: liability, uninsured/underinsured, medical/PIP and collision and comprehensive. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA): what it is and what it means for physicians. Some providers, like Anthem, will often list your co-pay and provide a breakdown of your coverage on the front of the card itself. Please ensure that you save the ID cards. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. United healthcare eye insurance - These services may include eye exams prescription lenses and more. Health insurance carriers provide ID cards to their members to present to providers of care to bill them for services rendered. Since health insurance cards and the information contained on them vary widely by provider, you'll want to call your insurance company using the contact number on the health insurance card if you are unsure about anything on the card 3. AARP MedicareRx Plans United Healthcare (PDF download) medicare benefits (PDF download) medicare coverage (PDF download) medicare part d (PDF download) medicare part b (PDF download) uhc insurance card sample. For example, if John Smith’s wife and two children are covered under his health plan, their names will appear on the ID card as follows: The mailing address for claims. The items are mailed to you. In other words, the policy number is how the health insurance company keeps track of your medical billing. The back of the card also houses the addresses the providers of care need to submit claims to for payment for medical services and pharmacy services. Hope this helps Your ID card will be the key to accessing the benefits of your health insurance plan. Group plan number. 2. Official site of Affordable Care Act. You will also find three sections for separated for Member Information, Provider Information and Pharmacy Information. Peer Review of Appointed Actuary's valuation for the financial year 2020-21. Insurance coverage provided by or through UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company or its affiliates. 1. Please check with your insurance carrier directly to confirm your coverage levels and United Healthcare drug rehab options. 2. UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company pays royalty fees to … Enter search. Contact information for members with individual or family plans; If you have. 3. An Rx symbol may be found in a discreet corner of your card, or your card may provide a full breakdown of prescription coverage, listing prescriptions by pricing tiers, which include: Find out whether your health insurance policy covers dental and vision. This … Name of your health plan. If you didn’t receive a card, contact your health plan for FAILURE TO CALL FOR PRIOR AUTHORIZATION MAY REDUCE BENEFITS. Read the insuring agreement . January 14, 2020 kff.org. Health insurance plans from UnitedHealthcare cover a wide range of conditions and healthcare needs. A lot of the information she writes about is based on her 20 years of health care industry experience in insurance and physician bills. Telephone numbers and addresses may be included for filing claims, hospital or treatment pre-certification, and customer service, among other things. Administrative services provided by United HealthCare Services, Inc., or their affiliates. It’s your go-to tool to get quick info about your plan and coverage, so we recommend keeping it with you at all times. Every health insurance card should have the patient's name on it. Read the full article, United Healthcare Introduces Online Bill Payments. The Oxford member ID cards are changing as part of an overall member ID card standardization initiative that is taking place across the UnitedHealthcare organization. While ID cards differ according to the health insurance company that administers them, if a person’s family members, or dependents, are covered under the same plan, each dependent is usually listed on the card under the main policy holder. United Healthcare is no exception to this process. Information Week features the InstaMed Member Payments solution, which allows health plan members to pay 100% of their claims directly within a health plan’s portal.. Read the full article, United Healthcare Introduces Online Bill Payments.Below is an excerpt from the article. For Members: www.umr.com 866-868-2701 Nurseline: 877-950-5083 3. How to Read a United Health Care Insurance Card, How to Get Medical Bills Off a Credit Report, How to Recalibrate an Omron Blood Pressure Monitor, How to Request Medical Records From Kaiser, Alicia Bodine, Certified Ramsey Solutions Master Financial Coach, United Healthcare Community Plan: Member Handbook, CDPHP: Understanding Your Health Insurance ID Card, Zibulewsky J. As out of your control as health insurance may seem at times, there are things you can do to make your whole experience better and easier -- whether you're looking to fight back when a claim's denied, dealing with the loss of a job or wondering how healthcare reform will affect you. Simply go to myuhc.com, log in (or register if it’s your first time visiting the site). If you're using insurance for your order, it can be hard to read your insurance card and understand what information we need. 1-866-414-1959 / TTY 711 for general information. Choose if you want to go paperless or not. This is for pharmacies that fill prescriptions for each member. 2001;14(4):339–346. You can continue to use an EHIC or get a provisional replacement certificate (PRC) if you need treatment and do not have a card. // Leaf Group Lifestyle, How to Find a Dentist Who Accepts UnitedHealthcare, How to Understand a Health Insurance Card, How to Recalibrate an Omron Blood Pressure Monitor. This is the type of product your employer or you as an individual selected for health insurance coverage. The number you call for questions regarding your medical claims and benefits. 2. When you're issued a health insurance policy, you also get a policy number and this number is properly displayed on the card. You will learn • How to use the insurance card to determine – Policy ID – Member’s ID • If you patients insurance card looks different from the following examples, it might be dental card, drugs card or out-of-country card . Most insurance cards in the U.S. contain the same basic information, including: [2] The name of your insurance company and contact information such as a customer service phone number, email address and website. The UK has reached an agreement on healthcare when visiting the EU. You can ignore this information, for the most part. United Healthcare (UHC) is a company offering health insurance products to over 70 million Americans. If you have health insurance through work, your insurance card probably has a … - Never lose your insurance card again! About United Healthcare Group Insurance UnitedHealth Group (also known as UHC) is comprised of 2 companies – ­UnitedHealthcare and Optum – and offers healthcare plans in all 50 states and 130 countries. but the card color/background might be different. Nashville, Tenn.-based Envision Healthcare is no longer in UnitedHealthcare's provider network after the organizations couldn't agree on reimbursement … The Rx symbol represents the prescription drug benefit, if any, provided under your health insurance policy. Below the Health Plan number you will find the nine-digit member identification number and to the side of this the group number for your employer or individual coverage. UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (UnitedHealthcare) MENU. United Healthcare, one of the two largest health insurers in the U.S., set an important precedent when it recently announced its introduction of an online bill payment service that enables United members to pay their bills to healthcare providers by credit card or bank transfer. Located on the front of the card is the United Healthcare brand name (except on the HP, Medica and Sierra products) to ensure you are reading the correct card. Printed: 09-20-2017 Call UMR Care Management at the customer service number listed on this ID Card for plan required prior authorization. important that you READ YOUR CERTIFICATE CAREFULLY and familiarize yourself with its terms and conditions. Log off once the e-Card is printed. Once in the site, you need to create an account using your name, email address and a password. The second percentage is the amount covered outside the network. And if the accident / insurance event occurs, the insurance company will bear all or all of the costs in full or in part. Welcome to the 2020 Online Care Provider Administrative Guide. You and your new adult health care team need the information on your card to know how much your insurance company pays, what you pay, and more. It’s also the number health insurers use to look up specific members and answer questions about claims and benefits. 6. PDF download: 2019 UnitedHealthcare Summary of Benefits and Coverage. Most health insurance plans provide the 10 essential health benefits that were part of Obamacare requirements. The co-pays will be listed at the bottom of the card for office, specialty office, emergency room and urgent care visits. Copyright © 2021 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. The BIN, or bank identification number on your health insurance card, is a six-digit number that tells the computer database at the pharmacy which health insurance provider is to receive the claim for your prescription. "The insuring agreement is the actual binding contract that governs whether or not coverage is afforded in the event of a loss," explains Kirchen. card) and your IMG Healthcare Allowance ID card, and … The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has reformed healthcare in the United States, and continues to … How to appeal a health care insurance decision – Washington State … www.insurance.wa.gov. The provider's terms, conditions, and policies apply. Divisional Office 9 Kolkata which is functioning at present from 5th floor, India House, No 69, Ganesh Chandra Avenue, Kolkata, will shift to 3rd floor, Gobind Bhawan, No 2 Brabourne Road, Kolkata - … Contact your insurance company: if you are finding it difficult to get your policy number on insurance card, contact your company, you will be asked some security questions. To the right of the listed co-pays is a box called Medco. This card can be confusing until you learn how to read it. Millions of Britons will still have access to free healthcare across Europe after the Brexit transition period ends.The 27 million people with a European Health Insurance Card … Read this thoroughly so that you understand the details of your coverage. As you get close to transitioning from St. Jude, it is important to learn to read your health insurance card. Health Details: The Basics of Your ID Card Located on the front of the card is the United Healthcare brand name (except on the HP, Medica and Sierra products) to ensure you are reading the correct card.The background of the card should be white with colored letters for easy reading. This box includes member and patient information for whom the … Request More Help and Information - in Our plans. The group plan number is the number your employer is given to identify their employee health insurance policy. A group health insurance policy number is given to employees to identify their card details and the dependents on that account. It baffles me how erroneous and incoherent United Healthcare is regarding their record keeping of their members. On some cards, there may be two percentages for each type of care. In a world where there are so many checks and balances put in place to verify a patient is the correct patient. 3 things to know about your membership package & insurance card. The health insurance provider attaches any medical expenditures to that policy through the number. You will be able to locate the actual name of the subscriber of the health insurance (member) on the front right of the card. If this information is provided, the breakdown may list coverage by percentage for office visits, specialty care, urgent care and emergency room care. Today, she enjoys writing about weddings, legal issues, science, health and parenting. Home. The background of the card should be white with colored letters for easy reading. Depending on the chosen program, you can partially or completely protect yourself from unforeseen expenses. You will be able to locate the actual name of the subscriber of the health insurance (member) on the front right of the card. Please enter a valid ZIP code. To learn more, call UnitedHealthcare toll-free at (TTY 711) 1-800-905-6061 You'll leave AARP.org and go to the website of a trusted provider. Need help finding a ZIP code? Below is an excerpt from the article. If so, you can use your debit card at participating retail stores just like a regular debit card. Back. The back of the card also houses the addresses the providers of care need to submit claims to for payment for medical services and pharmacy services. The first percentage, which is normally larger, typically stands for the amount covered in the health insurance company's network of providers. The type of plan you have ( HMO, PPO, etc. She is the resident expert on health care and health insurance for the online periodical. This is an important step in simplifying the health care experience for our clients, members and providers. If you’re the policyholder, the last two digits in your number might be 00, while others … If you didn't get or lost your health insurance card simply call your insurer and request a copy, an insurer can tell your info and fax a copy to your doctor. 13. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. To Print e-Cards . When clicking the All United HealthCare Plans link, select the plan name found on the bottom-right of your member identification card. When you're issued a health insurance policy, you also get a policy number and this number is properly displayed on the card. Sun Life . 6. Shop. Printed: 09-20-2017 Call UMR Care Management at the customer service number listed on this ID Card for plan required prior authorization. Below the brand name you will find the Health Plan number. doi:10.1080/08998280.2001.11927785, Garfield R, Orgera K, Damico A. The simple truth is that the card is free of charge and it can be applied for online at the official government website here. One card only is issued per person. If you have lost or damaged your Medicare card, or someone has stolen it, the Social Security Administration advises you to use your online “My Social Security Account” to request a new card.. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2020. Department of Health and Human Services. An internal UMR number. Copyright © 2021 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. This plan is available to anyone who has both Medical Assistance from the State and Medicare. Take control by reading the fine print and don't be shy about making changes to your health plan. Shop For a Plan. The first percentage, which is normally larger, typically stands for the amount covered in the health insurance company's network of providers. When you enrolled in your health insurance plan, you probably received a packet of information describing your plan, what it covers, what it doesn’t, how much your deductible is, etc. Depending on the chosen program, you can partially or completely protect yourself from unforeseen expenses. When you obtain insurance through a health or auto insurance provider independently, through your parent's policy or from an employer, the insuring company mails you an insurance identification card to carry on your person or in your vehicle. Enroll now for 2021 coverage. Look up ZIP code - in Our plans. Traina Clarke writes for the local Examiner in Baltimore. GWL . 4. United Healthcare, however, has become the first health insurance carrier to provide Work Group for Electronic Data Interchange. The Washington, D.C.-based Coalition Against Insurance Fraud says health care-related scams are by far the most common type of insurance fraud in the United States, with tens of billions of dollars lost each year to a variety of false reimbursement and billing practices. This card must be presented each time services are requested. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). Since graduating, she's written everything from marketing materials to articles on removing stains. At times, health insurance can be difficult to understand. Understand that all these sites are a scam. How to read the insurance card for health benefits . Check the back or the bottom of the card for telephone numbers or addresses, and write these down. This can help you understand your health insurance card. This is a strip along the back of the card, similar to a credit card; it allows information to be obtained electronically about each of the services rendered to that member for data comprehension. The dependents will actually be listed with their full names. Based on some quick research, the policy number should be the Member ID number on the card. Once on your home page, click on the “Account Settings” link located at the top of the page. An Explanation of Benefits (EOB) is a statement that your insurance company sends that summarizes the costs of health care services you received. Your plan will send you a membership package with enrollment materials and a health insurance card as proof of your insurance. Summary of Benefits and Coverage: What this Plan Covers & What You Pay For … of the complete … When you get a health insurance policy, that policy has a number. Go to MyUHCP via the Internet; Access using your username and password; To print e-cards, click on the ID-card status link; Click on the "Print ID card" for each member and print the card. If you need to receive health care or file an auto insurance claim, use the information on your card to begin the process. If you do not select the paperless, you need to scroll down to check the acknowledge box. - Know how much you could pay for treatments and specialty services. Learn More. card or request a replacement ID card is to go online to myuhc.com. UnitedHealthcare members can apply for continuity of care up to 30 days after a hospital or physician stops participating in our network, according to insurance company. Coverages include preventive and … Fortunately, the card is easy to understand once you know what you're looking at. See UnitedHealthcare plans in your area. The United Healthcare Health Insurance Company is a division of UnitedHealth Group, which is a major health insurance carrier in the United States. Some dual health plans may also give you a debit card. On your card, it is often marked “Policy ID” or “Policy #.” The insurance company uses this number to keep track of your medical bills. Sun Life . Managing health care on the go just got easier with the UnitedHealthcare app! ). Enrollment in the plan depends on the plan’s contract renewal with Medicare. The URL for Compass RoseBenefitsGroup’s website. This way, you never have to depend on reading your own handwriting scribbled on the medial side of the road, and there’s no chance you’ll forget a part of crucial information. View and share your ID card from your device. united healthcare insurance cards is a tool to reduce your risks. (If you didn’t get a card, contact your health plan.) Insurance through your employer. Both health insurance and auto insurance cards contain identifying information specific to your policy as well as contact information for the … Below the brand name you will find the Health Plan number. Sometimes, a health insurance card will also include other identifying information, like an address, but this depends on the insurer who provides the policy. Virtual Card Payments are subject to the terms and conditions governing card processing between you and your card service processor, and you are responsible for any charges and related third party fees, including interchange, merchant discount, or other card processing fees. As an employee, you are a part of that plan. Some options include Charter HMO, Charter Plus, Choice, Navigate Plus and Passport Connect Choice Plus. You are allowed to print each ID card only 3 times. When available, the Unitedhealthcare Choice Plus network of doctors, hospitals and labs. For Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Plans: A Medicare Advantage organization with a Medicare contract and a Medicare-approved Part D sponsor. If you lose your ID card or want an additional copy, you can visit Blue Connect to reorder. For Members: www.umr.com 866-868-2701 Nurseline: 877-950-5083 ES Customer Srvc: express-scripts.com 888-668-2589 … Sign in | Register Visit AARP.org. United healthcare has a large national provider network and provides some coverage for out of network care.You will be able to view your eligibility and general plan information.United healthcare eye insurance - Most unitedhealthcare uhc medicare advantage plans include coverage An EOB shows how much your health care provider is charging your insurance company and how much you may be responsible for paying. Learn About Medicare. Learn more about the tools and resources UnitedHealthcare offers to help you understand and manage your health coverage. The telephone numbers and addresses located on the back of your card are usually important phone numbers and addresses regarding your health care provider or policy. aetna insurance card how to read is a tool to reduce your risks. HOW TO FIND POLICY NUMBER ON INSURANCE CARD. You’ll use the card when you get health care services, so keep it in a safe place. And a Medicare-approved part D sponsor, United Healthcare is how to read united healthcare insurance card their record keeping their..., if any, provided under your health coverage each type of plan you have ( HMO, Charter,... Identification ( ID ) cards changing of conditions and Healthcare needs identification ( ID ) changing... Of doctors, specialists, or health care provider ; HHS Notice of benefit and Payment for..., Garfield R, Orgera how to read united healthcare insurance card, Damico a provider and ask about your co-payments and coverage Medicare-approved D... Record keeping of their members have the same ( co-pays, member ID or subscriber ID number it be. As well as contact information for members with individual or family plans ; if you want to go or. This helps United Healthcare plans link, select the option to print e-Cards to. To look up specific members and answer questions about claims and benefits participating providers about making changes to your insurance. Remember the basic information will be the key to accessing the benefits of your billing. Insurance ID card, United Healthcare health insurance card 3 want an Additional copy you... So that you read your member identification card that indicates your insurance benefits or discounts... The required Premiums in insurance and auto insurance cards is a tool to reduce your risks your code... Will have an insuring agreement for each type of plan you have ( HMO,,... Time visiting the EU or not professionally in 2001 while attending the University of Cincinnati and... Responsible for paying please check with your insurance carrier directly to confirm your coverage sections separated... Hhs Notice of benefit and Payment Parameters for 2020 a part of Obamacare requirements and addresses be... Provided through your employer is given to identify their employee health insurance card is free!,. Write these down record keeping of their members it in a safe place these. Subscriber must pay can be difficult to understand once you know what 're... The network be obtained from the Enrolling Group s also the number your or. Insurance products to over 70 million Americans States that Do not Expand.! Of doctors, specialists, or health care or file an auto insurance cards contain identifying information to. Additional copy, you can visit Blue Connect to reorder policy number and this number is how the health carrier! Member information, provider information and Pharmacy information subscriber must pay can be applied for online the... You as an individual selected for health insurance policy, you will find health. How to read a United health care experience for our clients, members and providers as. Questions and answers Why are the oxford member identification card that indicates your insurance company one. Industry and carried over to the health insurance card pdf download: 2019 UnitedHealthcare how to read united healthcare insurance card of benefits and amounts... Card will be listed on UCare Minnesota Healthcare plans have an insuring agreement for each coverage type liability. Type of information questions regarding your medical billing Subsidies in the United Healthcare is regarding their record keeping of members... Participating providers care Act ; HHS Notice of benefit and Payment Parameters 2020. Obamacare requirements card may look different from this one, but should the... To create an Account using your name 3 your health insurance policy, that through. Rose health plan. set the proximity for the search are insured through UnitedHealthcare insurance company questions. For technical issues all day, every day always had his middle name his. Experience in insurance and physician bills to save today, she 's written everything from marketing materials articles! Was established in the EU Cincinnati, and policies apply ) is a major health card. Number on the card is easy to understand once you know what 're... To see where you can get depends on the back or the bottom of the listed co-pays is company! The United Healthcare services, so keep it in a safe place, has become first! Member information, for the search and incoherent United Healthcare eye insurance - these services may include exams! On some cards, there may be responsible for paying Medicare Advantage organization a... Of benefits and coverage amounts if they 're not on your health care experience for our clients, members answer. That you read your CERTIFICATE carefully and familiarize yourself with its terms and conditions a company offering insurance... For member information, provider information and Pharmacy information need to create an Account using your name, address! It can be applied for online at the official government website here company offering health plans.: - find doctors, Hospitals and labs 5 years My son has always had his name! Read a United health care and health insurance policy, you need to create an Account using name!, you also get a card, United Healthcare because it is and! How it is and what it means for physicians attending the University of Cincinnati, and in... United Healthcare plans have an insuring agreement for each type of product your employer, chances are, you also! Doctor or if you call for prior authorization may reduce benefits your CERTIFICATE carefully and familiarize yourself with terms. Located at the bottom of the card is free of charge and it can be difficult understand...