[216], Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter,[217] the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland. We're working closely with our server provider and will try to get things back to normal as soon as possible. [31], "Scotland" comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels. [84], This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. [187] This is the lowest of any of the four countries of the UK.[187]. Scotland voted to remain part of the United Kingdom in 2014. [78], While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,[79] disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdoch, whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain. The Scottish Government also comprises the deputy first minister, currently John Swinney MSP, who deputises for the first minister during a period of absence of overseas visits. The synonyms have been arranged depending on the number of charachters so that they're easy to find. Until the American War of Independence in 1776, Glasgow was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade. [49] Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010. The following "Ten Years' Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts. [295] In the Reformation, the 1560 First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment. [314] Later medieval literature included works in Latin,[315] Gaelic,[316] Old English[317] and French. [264] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government. [104] Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. [348], Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern. [117] The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of Great Britain,[118] contributed to a growing movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs. A previous Labour leader, John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". Numerous Scottish regiments have at various times existed in the British Army. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. [42] Roman military government was withdrawn from the island altogether by the early 5th century, resulting in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the immigration of the Saxons to southern Scotland and the rest of eastern Great Britain. The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. The issuing of banknotes by retail banks in Scotland is subject to the Banking Act 2009, which repealed all earlier legislation under which banknote issuance was regulated, and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Banknote Regulations 2009. [59] The Battle of Altimarlach in 1680 was the last significant clan battle fought between highland clans. [46]:53–54 The Scottish kings rejected English demands to subjugate themselves; in fact, England invaded Scotland several times to prevent Scotland's expansion into northern England. Some of these cookies will send your data to our advertising partners. During the time of British Rail, the West Coast Main Line from London Euston to Glasgow Central was electrified in the early 1970s, followed by the East Coast Main Line in the late 1980s. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895, the coldest ever recorded anywhere in the UK. As of December 2019[update], Scotland are ranked as the 50th best national football team in the FIFA World Rankings. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War. [196], Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as well as representation in the British Parliament. For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Thus, Nova Scotia in Latin is literally "New Scotland." At Holyrood, Sturgeon's governing SNP continues to campaign for such a referendum; in December 2019 a formal request for the powers to hold one under Section 30 of the Scotland Act was submitted. [278] The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the country's major export markets. In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. [320] In the 16th century, the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry,[321] but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. [195] Elizabeth II's regnal numbering caused controversy in 1953 because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. Sexual scandals rocking the Church. [214], In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union in 2016, the Scottish Government has called for there to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population. Scotland is a country that occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain and forms part of the United Kingdom. [300] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. [144] The golden eagle is something of a national icon. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. A locale in Canada. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and Irvine. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday. The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas. [119] Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998[120] was passed by the British Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland. Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations, although Inverness Airport has a number of scheduled flights to destinations across the UK and mainland Europe. [37]:20 These societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. [302][303] The four universities founded before the end of the 16th century – the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh – are collectively known as the ancient universities of Scotland, all of which rank among the 200 best universities in the world in the THE rankings, with Edinburgh placing in the top 50. [280] It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000 indirectly. The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Jeane Freeman[267] and the Director-General (DG) Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland is Paul Gray. Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large proportion of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population. Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. If a particular answer is generating a lot of interest on the site today, it may be highlighted in orange. [220], During the G8 Summit in 2005, the first minister Jack McConnell welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the country's Glasgow Prestwick Airport[221] on behalf of then prime minister Tony Blair. [361], Wardpark Studios in Cumbernauld is one of Scotland's television and film production studios where the television programme Outlander is produced. [94], Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish schools. [163] The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located, including Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. This rose to 5,295,400, the highest ever, at the 2011 Census. [61] In 1698, the Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. [255] Community Councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions within each council area. R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds. Covenant Association to Appeal", "Brown opens door to Holyrood tax powers", "Scotland's tax powers: What it has and what's coming? [37]:26–27, Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in). "Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon says second Scottish independence vote 'highly likely, "Scottish Leader Nicola Sturgeon Announces Plans for Second Independence Referendum", "Scottish independence: Sturgeon requests powers for referendum", "Scotland's right to choose: putting Scotland's future in Scotland's hands - gov.scot", "Scottish independence: Johnson rejects Sturgeon's indyref2 demand", "Indyref2: Scottish Secretary rejects new vote 'for a generation, "Gordon Brown: Scotland needs 'time to heal' before any referendum", "Scottish independence: What is a section 30 order? [40], The Great conspiracy against Roman rule in Britain in the later 4th century, in which the Scoti participated, was defeated by the comes Theodosius. ", "Popular Opposition to the Ratification of the Treaty of Anglo-Scottish Union in 1706–7", "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder", Some Dates in Scottish History from 1745 to 1914, "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments", "Primary History – World War 2 – Scotland's Blitz", "Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at Holyrood", "National Planning Framework for Scotland", "Modern myth of a poll tax test-bed lives on", "Special Report | 1999 | 06/99 | Scottish Parliament opening | Scotland's day of history", "UK | Scotland | Guide to opening of Scottish Parliament", "Salmond hails 'historic' victory as SNP secures Holyrood's first ever majority | Politics", "Scottish independence referendum – Results", "Education Scotland – Standard Grade Bitesize Revision – Ask a Teacher – Geography – Physical – Question From PN", "State of the Park Report. Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland. Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance. [368] The Scotland women's team have achieved more recent success, qualifying for both Euro 2017[369] and the 2019 World Cup. Scotland has over 790 islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. (Scotland) Act 1994", "A General History of Scots Law (20th century)", "The case for keeping 'not proven' verdict", "Scotland's unique 15-strong juries will not be abolished", "Scotshield wins hospital fire system contract", Highlands and Islands Medical Service (HIMS), "Strategic Board of the Scottish Government", "The Scottish economy in ten essential charts", "Scotland's employment rate hits record high", "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of the World's Top Financial Centres", "Export Statistics Scotland – Publication", "New Doubt Cast over Alex Salmond's Claims of Scottish Wealth", "The Bank of England's approach to regulating Scottish and Northern Ireland commercial banknotes", "Scottish Banknotes: The Treasury's Symbolic Hostage in the Independence Debate", "A Guide to Education and Training in Scotland – "the broad education long regarded as characteristic of Scotland, "Curriculum for Excellence – Aims, Purposes and Principles", "Welcome to the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland", "Scotland tops global university rankings", "A Framework for Higher Education in Scotland: Higher Education Review Phase 2", "Scottish Government – Graduate endowment scrapped", "Scotland 'most highly educated country in Europe, "Tertiary educational attainment, age group 25–64 by sex and NUTS 2 regions", "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival", "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient", "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page", "Feature: Saint Andrew seals Scotland's independence", "Explanatory Notes to St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007", "Scottish fact of the week: Scotland's official animal, the Unicorn", "The Auld Alliance and its Influence on Scottish Cuisine", "Who invented the television? The use of Latin has declined greatly in recent years. [297] By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas. Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to 1424. [26], In 1999, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. ... Pope voices nuclear war concerns at outset of Latin America trip. [40] The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD, when Agricola invaded Scotland; he defeated a Caledonian army at the Battle of Mons Graupius in 83 AD. [388] In 2018–19 there were 102 million passenger journeys on Scottish railways.[389]. [283], Scotland was one of the industrial powerhouses of Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards, being a world leader in manufacturing. There are also twelve other ministers, who work alongside the cabinet secretaries in their appointed areas. [346] Other currently less popular candidates for the National Anthem of Scotland include Scotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That. [241][242] An all-party commission chaired by Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Kelvin was formed,[242] which led to a further devolution of powers through the Scotland Act 2016. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.[263]. [262] Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial in accordance with the rule of double jeopardy. After the execution of the Scottish king at Whitehall in 1649, amid the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and its events in Scotland, Oliver Cromwell, the victorious Lord Protector, imposed the British Isles' first written constitution – the Instrument of Government – on Scotland in 1652 as part of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. [102] Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig was Britain's commander on the Western Front. Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view. The Parliament of Scotland sought a commercial union with England in 1664; the proposal was rejected in 1668. Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". [94] Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism. Nemo me impune lacessit was the Latin motto of the Royal Stuart dynasty of Scotland from at least the reign of James VI when it appeared on the reverse side of merk coins minted in 1578 and 1580. the geographical area (in Roman times) to the north of the Antonine Wall; now a poetic name for Scotland, Latin name given a region within the modern day Scotland. [59] The failure of the Darien Scheme bankrupted the landowners who had invested, though not the burghs. [306][307] Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees. The island of Ireland lies only 21 kilometres (13 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre;[128] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroe Islands, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. The Romans invaded Scotland in 80 AD led by Agricola. Scotland had a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England; the Scots Army and Royal Scots Navy were (with the exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army) merged with their English counterparts to form the Royal Navy and the British Army, which together form part of the British Armed Forces. [124] The Scottish Parliament's form of proportional representation (the additional member system) resulted in no one party having an overall majority for the first three Scottish parliament elections. Una Voce Scotland was founded in 1965 for the preservation and restoration of Holy Mass in the Traditional Roman Rite, for the preservation of Gregorian Plainchant and the defence of the sanctuaries of Catholic churches. The name of Scotland is derived from the Latin Scotia: the tribe name Scoti applied to all Gaels. Human translations with examples: alba, verum, scotia, forever, caledonia, ad infinum, in aeternum. [305] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports. Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012[279] and were valued at £4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink exports. Following this, the newly developed football became the most popular sport in Scotland. Distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards, the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the 154 (Scottish) Regiment RLC, an Army Reserve regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps. The Scottish Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary, and establishment of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the relationship with the British Government and the other devolved administrations. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland. If your word has any anagrams, they'll be listed too along with a definition for the word if we have one. Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments. The war saw the emergence of a radical movement called "Red Clydeside" led by militant trades unionists. However, the pro-independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved an overall majority in the 2011 election, winning 69 of the 129 seats available. [50]:78 Multiple truces reduced warfare on the southern border. [298] Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education (Scotland) Act 1872. [98] While their relative importance has somewhat declined due to changing recreational interests throughout the 20th century, deer stalking and grouse shooting remain of prime importance on many private estates in Scotland.[98][100]. Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)[364] and the Scottish Rugby Union. [203] The Scottish Government is headed by the first minister, who is accountable to the Scottish Parliament and is the minister of charge of the Scottish Government. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. [72] Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William Gladstone,[73] and the Earl of Rosebery. [377] In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. [106] Cities such as Glasgow and Edinburgh were targeted by German bombers, as were smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country. River Forth, river and estuary in eastern Scotland, flowing from west to east from its headwaters on the eastern slopes of Ben Lomond to the Firth of Forth (the estuary), near Kincardine. Be held on 6 May 2021 particular answer is generating a lot of interest on the route Virginia. `` Fortress Scotland '' comes from Scoti, the executive arm of United! Brankin criticised the Scottish scotland in latin 's health Directorates 172 ] [ 160 ], in 2014 the death Alexander... 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