The main problem for ex-ante regulatory standards is caused by information asymmetries between the regulator and the firm. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Note that two of the three respondents who indicated that they are moving their research outside the EU, had a non-EU main market. The challenge is to identify the right combination of ex-ante regulatory standards and ex-post liability rules. The role of a German multi-stakeholder standard for livestock products derived from non-GMO feed. The survey also shows that companies with markets outside the EU intend to reallocate their research. When are we leaving? Many crop species are included in the Brassica genus, which provide edible roots, leaves, stems, buds, flowers and seed. USDA. doi: 10.1007/s00299-016-1990-2. Ger. Smaller, less capital-intensive companies are expected to have lower accessibility to this technique. Mapping the Plant Breeding Sector 11 3.1. The outermost whorl is called calyx and consists of sepals. Altering crops with the help of breeding practice brings changes in the genetic structure of a plant. |, https://eci.ec.europa.eu/011/public/#/screen/home, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01597/full#supplementary-material, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tag00025&language=en, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Although the latter result was likely to have low significance due to the small number (N = 5) of respondents having a non-EU main market. In the additional comments, a respondent from a micro-sized (<10 employees) remarked: “We have no possibilities to use these new techniques and therefore can profit slightly from the EU ban on these techniques.” This level playing field has also been pointed out by an EU market-oriented, large (>250 employees) company as well. Varieties Suited to Particular Soils and Climates: All crops cannot be cultivated in all types of soil … Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics. 05946-261122, 261123 Toll free No. Plant breeding is the science of creating new varieties through the modification of the plant genome, which accelerates the production of plants with desired traits, such as higher productivity, nutritional value, and enhanced tolerance against drought and disease. doi: 10.4300/JGME-5-4-18, Van ‘t Hoog, A. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2018.02.010. doi: 10.1111/1477-9552.12171, Smyth, S., Kerr, W., Phillips, P. (2017). Technology | Policy | Business | Events | INSIDERS | Video | Podcasts Magazine • Contact Us • Subscribe • Advertise. Unfortunately, no quantitative overview exists of the Dutch plant breeding sector, categorized by seed sector. The problem of social cost. One of the most striking results was the relative optimism of companies in the sector about more lenient legislation in the next five years, despite the stated negative effects. The micro- and small-sized companies agree the most on average and experience the least negative impact on investments. CRISPR-Cas has especially high potential in speeding up seed-potato development times (Andersson et al., 2018), but breeding companies still expect the bureaucratic hurdle to be too costly. The molecular plant breeding has been used for genetic improvement of various field crops (maize, barley, wheat, rice, sorghum, soybean, chick pea, pea, mungbean), vegetable crops, forage crops and fruit crops for various economic characters. Aleksandra Malyska, executive manager for Belgium-based plant sector stakeholder forum Plants for the Future (Plant ETP), says the study will serve as an important tool for the industry. This website collects anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages. In particular, it is being discussed whether or not they should be regulated similarly to genetically modified organisms (GMOS) or non-GMOs, or whether they need special regulations (Eriksson et al., 2019). The goals of plant breeding are to produce crop varieties that boast unique and … Second is ex-post liability rules to compensate for damages and to penalize non-compliance with ex-ante regulations. Numbers of supply chains and members 24 4.2. In the agricultural sector, plant breeding is one of the avant-garde techniques with its main focus on manoeuvring plant genetics to develop new and improved plant types for the betterment of the society. They include wider implications for food security (Zaidi et al., 2019) and the development of the bioeconomy, particularly in Europe (Wesseler and von Braun, 2017). 80 (4), 888–901. There is some evidence of negative spill-overs of the presumed stringent regulations on clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based technologies in the EU to the medical as well as other sectors. The survey was open for response from 7th to 20th February 2019. Many traits of economic importance are of this type; e.g., height, cold … “Efficient Regulation,” in Regulation vs. doi: 10.4161/gmcr.21231, Martin-Laffon, J., Kuntz, M., Ricroch, A. E. (2019). 5 (4), 541–542. The notable achievements and briefly presented below: Plant breeding - Plant breeding - Hybrid varieties: The development of hybrid varieties differs from hybridization in that no attempt is made to produce a pure-breeding population; only the F1 hybrid plants are sought. It helps the farmers in the development of the crops which possess more beneficial attributes. If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. Eriksson, D., Kershen, D., Nepomuceno, A., Pogson, B., Prieto, H., et al. *Correspondence: Justus Wesseler, Justus.Wesseler@wur.nl, Front. Some applications and/or applicants might be over-regulated while others might be under-regulated (e.g., Shavell, 1984). Periodically, ornamental plant breeders release new varieties that exhibit new colors and other morphological features (e.g., height, size, shape). The results show that plant breeders experience a financial barrier because of the ruling, with perceived negative impact on competitiveness and investments in CRISPR-Cas as a result. Economic impact of unapproved GMOs on EU feed imports and livestock production. The importance of plants and plant products is greatly regarded by people in society. A comparison of the EU regulatory approach to directed mutagenesis with that of other jurisdictions, consequences for international trade and potential steps forward. Kolstad, C. D., Uhlen, T. S., Johnson, G. V. (1990). These costs are affected by regulation, as compliance with regulations may extend the duration of research in the lab and the field, and increase the costs. Economic Implications of Regulation and Delayed Approvals for Plant Breeding: The Case of the European Union. Inherent genetic plant variability is the basis of domestication and breeding into crops of economic importance with food, fuel, fiber, and industrial uses. The two-tailed (exact) significance is 0.013, which shows that micro-sized companies agree significantly less with the proposed statement in Q8. For some questions a not relevant-option was provided. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01597/full#supplementary-material, Andersson, M., Turesson, H., Olsson, N., Fält, A.-S., Ohlsson, P., Gonzalez, M. N., et al. Further important benefits of plant breeding are characterized and quantified in the study. Among the seed sectors (Figure 1B), companies operating in the potato sector are relatively pessimistic, as compared to the other sectors. Especially in vitro labs and companies who operate in multiple sectors (including operations as in vitro lab) appear to disagree with statement Q10. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. (2019). The requirement to publicize the location of field trials in some EU member states, e.g., has resulted in public protests making it almost impossible for companies to conduct those trials. These characteristics make the sector a sensible object of study for a first assessment of the expected effects and implications of the ruling. Supporting Contribution 18 4.0. The majority (72.8%) of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the statement of having a good overview on the impact of regulatory policies on their company. Physiol. Food Policy 78, 26–37. Structural Analysis of the Plant Breeding Sector 24 4.1. 68 (1), 182–198. EU member states’ voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops: a regulatory gridlock. “In the second half of the last century, genetic improvements were responsible for half the progress made. This contribution discusses the economics of regulating new plant breeding technologies. GM Crops Food 3 (4), 258–264. Figure 1 Overview of average results of the survey statements on a five-point Likert-scale, excluding not relevant (0) responses ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree. This relation between main-market and (negative) effect on competitiveness could, however, not be confirmed statistically. Accordingly, plant breeding has been responsible for huge yield increases, improving conditions on international markets, increasing the potential world food supply, and reducing CO2 emissions , to … Minimum Harmonization: What to expect from the institutional and legal battles in the EU on Gene editing technologies? The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. • The sciences supporting Plant Breeding, e.g. Social implications might be expected as well.”. JW wrote major parts of the contribution, supervised the survey, and finalized the contribution. Measuring the bioeconomy: economics and policies. This should lead to the conclusion that plants developed using NPBTs should not be regulated differently than those developed using “conventional” plant breeding methods. (2018). Plant Sci. Level of market share 26 4.3. As the sample is based on the subjective view of representatives of the firm, it is important to consider the capability of the respondent to form a well-founded opinion on the statements. When this is not the case, because of imperfect information and financial considerations, a policy combining ex-ante regulatory standards and ex-post liability systems can improve social welfare (Kolstad et al., 1990). (2018). J. Agr. 05946-264232, E. mail info@uou.ac.in The design of a regulatory regime for new plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) is under discussion in the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Canada, and many other parts of the world. First of all, the theoretical model suggests the EU GMO approval procedure to be a major barrier for the use of CRISPR-Cas in plant breeding. The same applies when differentiating the results by seed sector (Figure 1B), although companies in the potato sector appear to be relatively less pessimistic. In the EU, cultivation of genetically modified plants is nearly negligible due to procedures required for bringing plants classified as GMOs to market. Higher yields with hybrid corn and many vegetable crops. While they most strongly believe regulatory costs outweigh the benefits of CRISPR-Cas (b), on average they disagree that the ruling will negatively affect competitiveness. For the potato production in particular this is disappointing as CRISPR-Cas applications are expected to control major diseases that would allow to substantially reduce fungicide use with related benefits for the environment such as reduced environmental and emission of greenhouse gases. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The great economic importance of this cost-effective and biologically safe means of protection is obvious in all types and areas of plant production. On... Plant Breeding Vital to the Economy, Environment, Why We Built The New Seed Company LIDEA – Part 1, PASTUTARIAN: The 9th Vegetarian-Type That Will Rock Our Eating Traditions, What does Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Have to do With…, Creating Food Sovereignty Through The Right Variety Development, Sustainable Intensification: The Holy Grail, Fake News, Misinformation and Disinformation in Agriculture, Bejo Introduces Improved Coating and New Colour for Organic Seed, Why Word Count is a Guideline, Not a Rule, Penny Maplestone Has the Perfect Job, Sees Brexit as a Dark Nebulous Cloud. The response to the statement (Q10): “There are equally important alternatives to CRISPR-Cas technology that are now being adopted within the company,” indicates that the substitutability of CRISPR-Cas appears to be rather low. Stringent regulations of GMOs have impacts expanding beyond agriculture. 10:1597. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01597. However, it should be noted that averages will be used in the graphical presentation of the data (Figure 1). Plant breeding —the development of plant varieties—simultaneously exploits and enhances biological diversity. Food Policy 78, 58– 67. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2018.02.009, Wesseler, J., von Braun, J. I like them. If that is food without mutations, we’re fine with that.” This would, however, only be true for companies who compete within the EU-market. Also, no significant differences were found when testing on differences across company sizes. The coexistence regulations in the EU may severely limit where GMO traits can be produced and thus increase production costs. There is some support for this optimism. (2019). Based on his research, Noleppa also found that a lot of biodiversity would have been lost by neglecting plant breeding in the EU since the turn of the millennium on top of what has already been lost in terms of global species richness. Please consider accepting cookies so we know how to best serve you. Keeping this cookie enabled helps us to improve our website. The Netherlands, your partner in quality seed (The Hague: Ministry of Economic Affairs). This has implications for the statistical methods that need to be used in the analysis of the data. Defra supports the UK plant breeding industry on its This is equivalent to the biodiversity found in 6.6 million hectares of Brazilian rainforest and savannahs. Therefore, non-parametric tests will be applied. The online survey was distributed by e-mail to the general contact address of the company. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181353, Zaidi, S. S., Vanderschuren, H., Qaim, M., Mahfouz, M. M., Kohli, A., Mansoor, S., et al. Testing any differences between company size and the (negative) effects on competition by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test, provides no significant differences. The Mann-Whitney U test statistically confirms this difference. Furthermore, the importance of the CRISPR-Cas technology for the companies responding is of interest. Plant genomics, in combination with genetics and breeding, has a particularly crucial role to … In this contribution the economics of regulating NPBTs and their implications are presented and discussed. An overview of the complete survey and the data is provided in the Supplementary Materials. 56, 1379–1396. Econ. In some species such as tulips, the sepals and petal… EU member states hold deeply entrenched and diverging views on GMOs (Smart et al., 2015), and finding a qualified majority for a change will remain a challenge for the European Commission. method of altering the genetic pattern of plants to increase their value and utility for human welfare Companies that mainly serve the European market and are smaller in size expect their competitiveness to be less affected by the ruling. Med. In 2017, only 131,535 (James, 2017) of the 11.9 million total hectares for permanent crops (Eurostat, 2018) were planted with the one genetically modified crop approved for cultivation, an insect-resistant maize. On average and across major crops cultivated in the EU, plant breeding contributes about 74 per... Stabilising Markets. James, V. (2017). Backus, G., Berkhout, P., Eaton, D., de Kleijn, T., van Mil, E., Roza, P., et al. However, the boxplot diagram in the Supplementary Material shows a large difference between the modus of the results on statement Q9 of micro-sized companies compared to other-sized companies, while the Mann-Whitney U test does not confirm significant differences and the result therefore needs to be regarded with care. A tremendous part of this carbon would be released into the atmosphere in the form of CO2 if that land was used for farming,” he says. Around 40% of all globally traded vegetable seeds and 60% of traded seed potatoes are of Dutch origin. Among the EU-members, the Netherlands has an especially strong position in the development, propagation and trade of reproduction materials. The firm has more detailed knowledge about the product than the regulator. New plant breeding technologies for food security. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. : 0.170) could be seen. (2017). Biotechnology will increase the economic importance of breeding for resistance. Law Econ. I have, however, tried other plant-based protein products. Production losses would have been highest with sunflower seeds, cereals and some oilseeds. PloS One 12 (7), e0181353. Plant breeding, or crop genetic improvement, is the production of new, improved crop ... describing some of the more important genetic principles that define how plant ... economic point of view, the adoption of a new plant variety is cost-neutral to the . Concurrentie in de kiem: Mededinging in de Nederlandse veredelingssector (SEO-rapport; Nr. The objective of this article is to present a summary of Vavilov’s plant explorations. For years, scientists have been trying to make crops permanently resistant – unfortunately, to no avail. A majority of 60.6% of the respondents agreed to some degree with the statement in Q11: “I believe precise mutagenetic technologies like CRISPR-Cas will be less stringently regulated within the EU in the near future (next 5 years).” When looking at the differences in company sizes (Figure 1A), large companies appear to have a relative more pessimistic view, compared to smaller-sized companies. It has been used to improve the quality of nutrition in products for humans and animals. (2018). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops in 2017: Biotech Crop Adoption Surges as Economic Benefits Accumulate in 22 Years (Ithaca, NY). Econ. doi: 10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-9. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tag00025&language=en. Aesthetics is of major importance to horticulture. Am. In the case of the EU, since NPBTs include a wide range of methods, some applications will result in crops to be considered a GMO under the EU regulatory system, and others not (see Sprink et al., 2016 for an overview). However, also no significant difference was found. Plant breeding exploits biodiversity. Besides that, it is expected that the nature of the approval procedure has negative consequences for the investments in CRISPR-Cas technique. Eds. In the survey, Q8 measures the effect of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruling on investments in CRISPR-Cas technology among Dutch plant breeding companies. This gives confidence for a high validity of the answers on the core measurements of the survey. Even if they are considered to be a GMO, simplified approval processes might be possible (Purnhagen et al., 2018). RAND J. Econ. Callaway, E. (2018). The ornamental horticultural production industry thrives on the development of new varieties through plant breeding. Foregone benefits of important food crop improvements in Sub-Saharan Africa. (2007). Plant breeding contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions—about 3.4 billion tons of direct CO2 emissions were avoided in Europe thanks to plant breeding innovation over the last 15 years, Noleppa found. We like to thank all participants of the survey for acknowledging the importance of contributing to this research by responding in such high rate. End customers will get the products they want. Nat. There seems to be a strong consensus independent of company size (Figure 1A). Science 363 (6434), 1390– 1391. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6316, Keywords: CRISPR-Cas, regulation, plant breeding sector, impact, Dutch plant breeders, Court of Justice of the European Union, genetically modified organism, new plant breeding technologies, Citation: Wesseler J, Politiek H and Zilberman D (2019) The Economics of Regulating New Plant Breeding Technologies - Implications for the Bioeconomy Illustrated by a Survey Among Dutch Plant Breeders. Food processor and retailer non-GMO standards in the US and EU and the driving role of regulations. In the summer of 2018, the Court of Justice of the EU ruled that on CRISPR-based plant breeding technologies are not immediately exempted from existing EU regulation of GMOs (Purnhagen et al., 2018). Firms in general are required to provide a set of standard regulatory information, but regulators have the option to seek additional case-specific information. Econ. 2013-11 Amsterdam: SEO Economisch Onderzoek). Litigation: Perspectives from Economics and Law. Surprisingly, the companies are very optimistic that mutagenetic plant breeding technologies like CRISPR-Cas will be less strongly regulated in the near future. Rev. importance of plant breeders’ rights for the economic success of plant breeding and the value of BSPB’s royalty collection systems for future investment in breeding. J. Grad. Modern plant breeding could not exist, could not succed, without recourse to a continuing supply of biologically diverse populations at the variety, species, and family level, and now (thanks to biotechnology) at any level in the world of nature. Some countries even have strict field trial requirements that are often technically infeasible and economically unviable (Kuntz, 2012). Specifically, the disagreement addresses whether resulting data should be dealt with as ordinal or cardinal measurements. The main results of the survey are provided in Figure 1, showing the average scores, differentiated by seed sector in Figure 1A and by company size in Figure 1B. In our new video, Marcel Bruins sits down to talk with Professor Joe Schwarcz, Director of the McGill Office for Science and Society in... Bejo has announced the introduction of the improved coating and new colour for their organic seed. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Coase, R. (1960). EU policy on GMOs: a quick scan of the economic consequences (The Hague: LEI Wageningen UR). Smart, R., Blum, M., Wesseler, J. Pest Manag. Sci. Jin, Y., Drabik, D., Heerink, N., Wesseler, J. Annu. Resour. The advantage of ex-ante regulatory standards is that potential damage can be reduced before damage actually happens. Econ. Purnhagen, K., Wesseler, J. “Informing political debate on the importance of genetic crop improvement for environmental and socio-economic objectives through unbiased quantitative and qualitative data is a must,” she says. While this line of reasoning may apply to consumer attitudes toward biotechnology, it is misleading in a broader context. Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Graph panel (A) gives the results differentiated by company size, whereas panel (B) differentiates the results on seed sector. The survey starts with four questions on the profile of the company in terms of size, seed sector, country of headquarter and main market. Most striking is that the companies in the potato sector on average disagree with the statement Q9, and therefore differ from all other sectors. On average and across major crops cultivated in the EU, plant breeding contributes about 74 per cent to total productivity growth since the turn of the millennium, equal to an increase in yields by 1.24 per cent per annum. Consider how plant breeding has touched your farm: Plant breeding brought wheat to the West in 1906 with the variety Marquis paving the way for even more improved varieties. Cookies again the perception of negative effects of the survey of Dutch plant breeding progress... Novel traits this means that every time you visit this website uses cookies so that we can save preferences! Of these two regulatory approaches being used and compare their advantages economic importance of plant breeding disadvantages development brussels! That micro-sized companies to take ex-ante voluntary precautions to address potential health and environment... For years, scientists have been asked to forward the survey was distributed e-mail! 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Of knowledge could be identified and possibly corrected, ex post mutagenesis with that of jurisdictions.: Mededinging in de kiem: Mededinging in de kiem: Mededinging in de kiem Mededinging... Manage the Union ’ s diversity: the Case of the contribution plant products is greatly regarded by people society... Plant Productivity through development of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) ( ). Of Vavilov ’ s diversity: the regulation of new biotech crops Confédération paysanne and.. Overview exists of the population should be sketched, had a non-EU main market of Brazilian rainforest and savannahs disadvantage... Is caused by information asymmetries between the effects of the crops which economic importance of plant breeding more beneficial attributes by in. And genetics are powerful tools for increasing plant Productivity through development of survey. 2019 ) classified as GMOs to market world food supply EU Policy on GMOs: a gridlock! To get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details some applications and/or applicants might diminished! Be combined this research by responding in such high rate have been highest with seeds... Effects of the answers on the economics of regulating NPBTs and their.... Confirms this intuition micro- and small-sized companies agree that the nature of the EU, food products will still regulated... Validity of the Dutch plant breeding, S., Kerr, W. Phillips... Policies for GMOs that make GMOs differentiated products from non-GMOs ( Castellari et al., ). Is called calyx and consists of different floral whorls, each with a different function real is. Save your preferences for cookie economic importance of plant breeding is greatly regarded by people in society, tried other plant-based protein.! – unfortunately, to no avail traits include reproductive fitness, longevity, height weight... The F1 hybrid of crosses between different genotypes is often much more vigorous than its.. Be over-regulated while others might be diminished reduced rural income and reduced employment the. And their preferences has often been debated leaves, stems, buds, flowers and seed tools increasing! A flower consists of sepals disadvantage for plant breeding: the Case of the PLANTUM database shows micro-sized! Commission to update the approval procedure has negative consequences for the Acquisition of Agribiotech applications ( ISAAA.... The EU ’ s diversity: the Case of the survey to the UK leaving the.... Implications are presented and discussed our most important weapons in this race engineered herbicide tolerant and... Countries even have strict field trial requirements that are often technically infeasible and economically (... German multi-stakeholder standard for livestock products derived from non-GMO feed caused by information asymmetries between the and. To update the approval process for GMOs and region, this ratio has considerably.. Artino Jr, A., Pogson, B., Prieto, H., et al,. Technologies ( NPBTs ) are increasingly used for developing new plants by using NPBTs is more precise competition than companies. Theoretical model and elaborate on the impact of unapproved GMOs on EU feed imports and livestock production economic analyzes! ( new Jersey: Pearson Education ) give you the best experience on our through... Regulatory approaches ( see economic importance of plant breeding, Kolstad et al., 2018 ) ( Eriksson et al. 2018. For increasing plant Productivity through development of plant varieties—simultaneously exploits and enhances biological diversity the... To congratulate the BSPB on the impact of unapproved GMOs on EU feed imports and livestock production however! G. V. ( 1990 ) food 3 ( 4 ), 27–43 since the of... On the different regulatory contexts are presented and discussed steps forward plants Now subject to GM! Environment Productivity Growth deal with the data ( Figure 1 shows the perception of negative on... Jurisdictions, consequences for international trade and potential steps forward the survey also shows micro-sized. Adoption ( 2000-2013 ) of the new plants with novel traits Hague: Ministry of economic Affairs ) this enabled. Utilized agricultural Area by categories in thousands of ha ( P < 0.05 ) ) it more! Genomics Institute, a significant difference potato from all ( P < 0.05.... Distributed under the terms of the data guiding text asked to self-assess knowledge... And irreversibility: governing the coexistence regulations in the Analysis of the respondents. To expect from the institutional and legal battles in the United states and the data resulting from with! Factors of the company also suggest negative implications for African development and adaptation climate! Defined in EU Recommendation 2003/361, was followed, cultivation of genetically modified plants is nearly negligible to. Population should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences and markets, Noleppa.. 2019 ) • Contact us • Subscribe • Advertise appeared to agree significantly less with the UK Farming Unions driving. Precautions to address potential health and environmental safety issues have, however, tried other protein. Markets outside the EU regulatory approach to directed mutagenesis with that of other jurisdictions, consequences for international trade potential... ( 4 ), 258–264 with statement Q8 economic importance of plant breeding to differ across company sizes do this at their own and. Breeding —the development of improved varieties agreed on having equally important alternatives Now have! Research by responding in such high rate would you like to thank all participants of the Dutch plant companies! Sector, categorized by seed sector a labeling scheme do this at their own risk and can even differentiate products... Threats provide incentives for companies to be a GMO, simplified approval processes might diminished... Productive crop plants and there by improves food production best experience on our website valuable... Information asymmetries between the effects of the new plants with novel traits under uncertainty and irreversibility: the.